Burgesses and Burgess Law in the Latin Kingdoms of Jerusalem and Cyprus (1099–1325)

Kingdom of Jerusalem
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Constance of Antioch - Alan V. The Failure of the Siege of Damascus in - A.

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Read the guide. In , al-Afdal was driven out of Damascus by al Adil in alliance with Uthman. When Uthman died in , al Afdal returned to power as regent in Egypt for Uthman's infant son. Allied with az-Zahir, he then attacked his uncle in Damascus. The alliance fell apart, and al-Adil then defeated al Afdal in Egypt and annexed the country.

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Following a second unsuccessful siege of Damascus by the two brothers, Al Afdal accepted a fief consisting of Samosata and a number of other towns. Az-Zahir of Aleppo submitted to his uncle in , thus re-uniting the Ayyubid territories. Meanwhile, schemes were hatched to reconquer Jerusalem through Egypt. A Fourth Crusade was planned after the failure of the Third, but it resulted in the sack of Constantinople in , and most of the crusaders involved never arrived in the kingdom.

Aimery, however, not knowing of the diversion to Constantinople, raided Egypt in advance of the expected invasion. The Fourth Lateran Council in called for a new, better-organized crusade against Egypt. In the spring of the Fifth Crusade began in earnest when German crusader fleets landed at Acre. Along with King John, who was elected leader of the crusade, the fleets sailed to Egypt and besieged Damietta at the mouth of the Nile in May.

The siege progressed slowly, and the Egyptian sultan al-Adil died in August , supposedly of shock after the crusaders managed to capture one of Damietta's towers.

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He was succeeded by his son al-Kamil. In the autumn of reinforcements arrived from Europe, including the papal legate Pelagius of Albano. In the winter the crusaders were affected by floods and disease, and the siege dragged on throughout , when Francis of Assisi arrived to attempt to negotiate a truce. Neither side could agree to terms, despite the Ayyubid offer of a thirty-year truce and the restoration of Jerusalem and most of the rest of the former kingdom. The crusaders finally managed to starve out the city and captured it in November. Al-Kamil retreated to the nearby fortress of al-Mansurah , but the crusaders remained in Damietta throughout and , awaiting the arrival of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II , while King John returned to Acre briefly to defend against al-Mu'azzam, who was raiding the kingdom from Damascus in John's absence.

Still expecting the emperor's imminent arrival, in July , the crusaders set off towards Cairo, but they were stopped by the rising Nile , which al-Kamil allowed to flood by breaking the dams along its course. The sultan easily defeated the trapped crusader army and regained Damietta. Emperor Frederick had, in fact, never left Europe at all. After the failure of the crusade, John travelled throughout Europe seeking assistance, but found support only from Frederick, who then married John and Maria's daughter Isabella II in The next year, Isabella died giving birth to their son Conrad IV , who succeeded his mother to the throne although he never appeared in the east.

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Frederick had reneged on his promise to lead the Fifth Crusade, but was now eager to cement his claim to the throne through Conrad. There were also plans to join with al-Kamil in attacking al-Mu'azzam in Damascus, an alliance which had been discussed with Egyptian envoys in Italy.

But after continually delaying his departure for the Holy Land, including suffering an outbreak of disease in his fleet, he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX in The crusaders, led not by Frederick but by his representatives Richard Filangieri , Henry IV, Duke of Limburg , and Hermann of Salza , Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights , arrived in the east late in , and while waiting for the emperor they set about refortifying Sidon , where they built the sea castle , and Montfort , which later became the headquarters of the Teutonic Knights.

The Ayyubids of Damascus did not dare attack, as al-Mu'azzam had suddenly died not long before. Frederick finally arrived on the Sixth Crusade in September , and claimed the regency of the kingdom in the name of his infant son. Frederick immediately came into conflict with the native nobles of Outremer, some of whom resented his attempts to impose Imperial authority over both Cyprus and Jerusalem. The Cypriot nobles were already quarrelling amongst themselves about the regency for Henry I of Cyprus , who was still a child. The High Court of Cyprus had elected John of Ibelin as regent, but Henry's mother Alice of Champagne wished to appoint one of her supporters; Alice and her party, members or supporters of the Lusignan dynasty , sided with Frederick, whose father had crowned Aimery of Lusignan king in At Limassol , Frederick demanded that John give up not only the regency of Cyprus, but also John's own lordship of Beirut on the mainland.

John argued that Frederick had no legal authority to make such demands and refused to give up either title. Frederick then imprisoned John's sons as hostages to guarantee John's support for his crusade.

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John did accompany Frederick to the mainland, but Frederick was not well-received there; one of his few supporters was Balian, Lord of Sidon , who had welcomed the crusaders the year before and now acted as an ambassador to the Ayyubids. The death of al-Mu'azzam negated the proposed alliance with al-Kamil, who along with his brother al-Ashraf had taken possession of Damascus as well as Jerusalem from their nephew, al-Mu'azzam's son an-Nasir Dawud. However, al-Kamil presumably did not know of the small size of Frederick's army, nor the divisions within it caused by his excommunication, and wished to avoid defending his territories against another crusade.

Frederick's presence alone was sufficient to regain Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and a number of surrounding castles without a fight: these were recovered in February , in return for a ten-year truce with the Ayyubids and freedom of worship for Jerusalem's Muslim inhabitants. The terms of the treaty were unacceptable to the Patriarch of Jerusalem Gerald of Lausanne , who placed the city under interdict.